Women Empowerment in Pakistani Law: An Analysis from the Islamic Perspective
Women constitute about one half of the global population but they are placed at various disadvantages positions due to gender differences and biasness. Women Empowerment is a most debated issue in developing countries. It is vividly recognized that women empowerment is essential for the economic growth and reduction in poverty in developing country. Firstly this research explained the concept of women empowerment at global perspective. This research focuses on the rights of woman in the light of Islam and Pakistani law. These rights are protected in the form of different Laws, Bills and Acts in Pakistan. True implementation of these laws will be applied on the status of woman they would able to empower themselves. The main purpose of this study is to show that having all the rights either in Islamic perspective or in Pakistan Penal code why women are not able to empower themselves. Different bills, acts and conventions were discussed in this research for elaborating the rights of woman and how these laws are protecting the right of women. Another purpose of this research is to know the gap between rights in theory and practical implementation of these rights. This is a descriptive research and based on qualitative method. This research has proved after analysis on rights of women in Islam and Pakistan Penal Code that these rights encourage women to empower themselves and new laws, bills and act for the improvement of the status of woman. This research also shows that women should be aware about their rights through increasing their literacy rate.
1. Zafar, Fareeha. Findings our ways: reading on women in Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: ASR publications, 1991.
2. Setty, E. D, and P. Krishna Moorthy. Women empowerment through entrepreneurship development. New Delhi (India): Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, 2007.
3. Ali, Zeenat Shaukat. The Empowerment of Women In Islam With Special Reference To Marriage & Divorce. Mumbai: Vakils Feffer and Simons Ltd.1997.
4. Indira Kumari, Dr. (Smt), Y, and Dr. B. Sambasiva Rao. Empowerment of women and Rural development. India: Serials publication, 2005.
5. Kumari, Madhu. Women Empowerment and Social Change. India: Random Publications, 2011.
6. Ali Engineer, Asghar. The Rights of Women in Islam. New Delhi, India: Vanguard Books. Pvt. Ltd.1992.
7. AL-Hatimy, Said Abdullah Seif .Women in Islam A Comparative Study. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publication (Pvt) Ltd, 2000.
8. Lal, Sunder. Social status of Women. Jaipur, India: Abd Publishers, 2005.
9. Varadarajan, DR. Dhulasi Birundha and Nirmala Dr. J. Empowerment of Women. New Delhi, India: Serials Publications, May 2006.
10. Narasaiah, M. Lakhshami. Women and Human Rights. New Delhi, India: Discovery Publishing House, 2005.
11. Khan, M A. Women and Human Rights. New Delhi, India: SBS Publishers &Distributors (PVT) Ltd, 2006.
12. AL- Hatimy, Said Abdullah Seif .Women In Islam a comparative study. Pakistan: Islamic Publication (pvt) Ltd, 2000.
13. Devasia, V. V, and Leelamma Devasia. Women Social Justice and Human Rights. New Delhi (India): APH Publishing Corporation, 2009.
14. Sofie, Roald Anne. Women in Islam the Western Experience. London: Rout ledge Publisher, 2001.
15. Mawdudi, Abul A’la. Human Rights in Islam, Leicester (United Kingdom): The Islamic Foundation, 1976.
16. Chaudhary, G. W. Constitutional Development in Pakistan. London: Longman Group Ltd, 1959.
17. Basit, Muhammad Abdul. The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Federal Law House, 2015.
18. Aqeel Warker and Abdul Basit Ahmad “Struggle for Equality” New York (USA): Dar us Salam Publishing House, 2001.
19. Munir, Muhammad. Precedent in Pakistani Law. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford Publishing Press, 2014.
20. Abbas, Hakim. Islamic Law and Human Rights. New Delhi, India: Random Publications, 2013.
21. Awde, Nicholas. Women in Islam: An anthology from the Quran and Hadiths, England: Curzon Press, 2000.
22. Patel, Rashida. Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Pakistan. New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 2010.
23. Kumar, Bipin. Women Empowerment and Sustainable Development. New Delhi, India: Regal Publications, 2009.
24. Joshi, S.C. Women empowerment myths and reality. New Delhi, India: Akansha publishing house, 2006.
25. Bhaskara, Digumarti Rao., and Digumarti Pushpalatha Rao. Women, Education and Empowerment. New Delhi, India: Discovery Publishing House, 2006.
26. Panigrahy, R. L., and Bhuyan Dasarathi. Women Empowerment. New Delhi, India: Discovery Publishing House, 2006.
27. Welchman, Lynn, and Sara Hossain. Honors: crimes, paradigms and violence against women. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford university press, 2005.
28. Bansal, Seema. Women in Developing Countries. New Delhi, India: Sumit Enterprises, 2007.
29. Sanajaoba, Professor N. International Human Rights, Vol 2. New Delhi, India: Manas Publications, 2005.
30. Rouse, Shahnaz. Gender, Nation, State in Pakistan. (Lahore, Pakistan: Vanguard books, 2006); 33-37.
31. Klein, Heinz Gunther. Women in Pakistan. Pakistan: Vanguard Books, 1992.
32. Agarwal, Meenu. Women Empowerment Today’s Vision for Tomorrow’s Mission. New Delhi, India: Mahamaya Publishing House, 2007.
33. Hasnat, Syed Farooq and Ahmed Faruqui. Pakistan Unsolved Issues of State & Society. Pakistan: Vanguards books, 2008.
34. Fatima, Shabana. Women and Islam. New Delhi, India: Sumit Enterprises, 2005.
35. Khan, Mohammad Shabbir. Status of Women in Islam. New Delhi, India: Sumit Enterprises, 2007.
36. Stockdale, Margaret S. Sexual Harassment in the Work Place. California, USA: Sage Publications Inc, 1996.
37. Raza Razvi, Justice Syed Shabbir. Constitutional Law of Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Vanguard Books (Pvt) ltd, 2005.
38. Rashmi, Sharma. Women Law and Judicial System. New Delhi, India: Regal Publications, 2009.
39. Ansari, M. R. Protecting Human Rights. New Delhi, India: Max Ford Books, 2007.
40. Thakur, Anil Kumar, and R Rahman. Women Entrepreneurship. New Delhi, India: Deep & Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd. 2009.
41. Krishna, Sumi. Women’s Livelihood Rights. New Delhi, India: Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd, 2007.
42. Khan, Maulana Wahiduddin. Women in Islamic Shariah. New Delhi, India: The Islamic Centre, 1995.
43. Rappin, Andrew. Muslim their beliefs and practices. New York, USA: Routledge Publications, 1990.
44. Nagendra, Shilaja. Women’s Rights. Jaipur, India: ABD Publications, 2006.
45. Baluchamy, S. Empowerment of Women. New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications Pvt .Ltd, 2010.
46. Ghadanfar, Mahmood Ahmad. Great Women of Islam. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, 2001.
47. Khan, Maulana Wahiduddin. Women in Islamic Shariah. New Delhi, India: The Islamic Centre, 1995.
48. Malik, Nafeer Ahmed. The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, Lahore, Pakistan: Irfan Law Book House, 2011.
49. Afshar, Haleh and Stephanie Barrientos. Women Globalization and Fragmentation in the Developing World. USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
50. Esposito, John L. “Women Rights in Islam,” Journal of Islamic Studies 14, no.2 (1975): 103. Shah, Naiz A. “Women’s Rights in Quran: An Interpretive Approach,” Journal of Human Rights Quarterly 28, no.4 (2006):3Ali, Sayyid Mumtaz. “Haquq-un-Niswan: An Advocate of women’s Rights in Islam in the Late Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Modern Asian Studies 24, no. 1(1990): 152-155.
51. Lawrence, Bruce B. “Woman as Subject/ Woman as Symbol: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Status of Women.” The journal of Religious Ethics 22, no. 1 (1994): 163-174.
52. “The Protection of Women (Criminal Laws Amendments) Act, 2006,” Journal of Islamic Studies 46, no.1 (2007): 87-114.
53. Mahmood, Naushin. “Women’s Role in Domestic Decision-making in Pakistan: Implications for Reproductive Behavior.” The Journal of the Pakistan Development Review 41, no. 2. (2002): 121-129.
54. Patel, Rashida. “Gender Equality and Women Empowerment in Pakistan.” Journal of peace-conflict & Development, (2010).
55. Noreen, Ghazala and Humala Khalid.“Gender Empowerment through Women’s Higher Education: Opportunities and Possibilities.” Journal of Research & Reflections in Educations 6, no.1.(2012): 50-60.
56. Thakur, Anil Kumar, and R Rahman. Women Entrepreneurship. New Delhi, India: Deep & Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd. 2009. C. f. Agarwal B, “Women Poverty and Agriculture Growth in India.” Journal of Peasant Studies 14, no.4 (1986): 371-375.