Re-Appraisal of Ghāmidī’s Concept of Sunna and Hadith
This study deals with the Ghāmidī’s concept of Suana and Hadith, a comprehensive study of the importance of hadith in Islamic Scholarship, and a chronological study of the primary source of the principles of hadith as well as a brief biography and thoughts of Jāved Ahmad Ghāmidī. It is revealed that Jāved Ahmad Ghāmidī has an unorthodox approach to the principles of hadith as he limited the Prophetic hadith into two types. However, his division of Ahādith has not any precedent in the early books of Usūl al-Hadith. Moreover, the study deals with his definition of Sunna and hadith. It concluded that Ghāmidī followed an orientalist approach in the division and defining of the mentioned terms. None of the Muhaddithūn and authorities in the Science of hadith divided the Prophetic hadith into those types, nor they defined both terms as he did in his works. Besides, the study contained a detailed analysis of his conditions for the Sunna, which proved that Ghāmidī violated his principles in listing Ādhān to the newborn child among the twenty-seven fundamental practices of Islam
Jāved Ahmad Ghāmidī, Mīzān (Lahore: al-Mawrid, Topical Printing Press, 1435/2014), 14-15.
AMI, al-Mawrid India. Ammar Baksh“ Jāved Ahmad Ghamidi: A Brief
Introduction to his Life and Works”. Date of Access 21 September 2019.
Jāved Ahmad Ghāmidī, Būrhān (Lahore: al-Mawrid, Shirkat Printing
Press, 1430/2009), 18-19.
Ghāmidī, Būrhān, 18.
Ghāmidī, Būrhān, 25-34.
Ghāmidī, Būrhān, 140.
Ghāmidī, Mīzān, 25-26.
Jāved Ahmad Ghāmidī, “Islām avr Mūsīqī”, Ishrāq 4/3 (March 2004), 9.
Ghāmidī, Mīzān, 264.
Jāved Ahmad Ghāmidī, “Ḥayā aur Ḥijāb”, Ishrāq 2/5 ( May 2002), 47.
Ghāmidī, Būrhān, 138.
Ghāmidī, Mīzān, 171.
Ghāmidī, Mīzān, 14.
Ghāmidī, Mīzān, 14.
These are: Prayer (al-Ṣalāt), al-Zakāt and Ṣadaqah al-Fiṭr, Fasting and retreat, Hajj and ‘Umrah, Sacrifice in Eid al- Aḍḥā and Takbīr al-Tashrīq.
These are: Marriage, divorce, and what it relates to them, the abstention of husband and wife from intercourse during Mensuration and puerperium.
These are Pig, Blood, Dead animals and those animals which are not slaughtered in the name of Allah, purification of Animals in the Name of Allah.
These are: eating foods with the name of Allah by the right hand, greetings (to say Assalām alikum and walikum al-salām) during the meeting, to say alhamdulillāh after sneezing and Yarhamūke Allah in response, the Adhān in the right ear of a newborn child and the Iqāmat in his left ear, the debase of mustaches. Shaving the hairs under the navel. Removing of armpit hairs. Cutting the nails. Circumcision of boys. The cleaning of the nose, mouth, and teeth. Purification after defecation (al-Istinjā). Bath after Menses and puerperium. Bath of the dead. Coffin and Burial. Eid al- Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā.
Ghāmidī, Mīzān, 15.
See for details my book. Takyimu nazariyyati Juynboll havle'l-hadisi'n- nebevi (Trabzon: Kalam Yayınevi, 1440/2019), 223-224.
See for details my article “The Impact of Orientalist on Ghāmidī Theories” Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 9 / 17 (January 2020): 20-28.
al-Rāmhurmuzī, al-Muḥaddith al-Fāṣil, ed. Muhammad Ajaj al-Khatīb (Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1404/1984), 177.
al-Ḥākim al-Naysāburī, Marifat ulūmū’l-Ḥadith, ed. Mūazzam Ḥūssain (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiah, 1397/1977), 17-21.
al-Khaṭib al-Baghdādī, al-Kifāya fi ilmi’r-Rivāya, ed. Abū Abdillah al- Sūraqī (al-Saūdīa: al-Maktabtū’l ‘Ilmīah, 1357/1938), 16.
G. H. A Juynboll, "(Re) Appraisal of Some Technical Terms in Hadith Science”, Islamic Law and Society 8/3 (October 2001), 326-344.
Ghāmidī, Mīzān, 70.
Ibn as-Ṣalāh, Mūqadīmah Ibn as-Ṣalāh, ed. Nūr ud-Din (Beirut: Dār al- Fikr, 1406/1986), 11-56.
Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqalānī, Nukhbatu’l- Fikar, ed. Abdul Ḥamīd b. Ṣālih (Beirut: Dār Ibn Hazm, 1427/2006), 81.
Ibn Duraīd, “Danaya”, Jamharatu’l- Lugha, ed. Ramzī Munir (Beirut: Dār al-‘Ilam, 1407/1987), 2/688. Abū Hilāl al-‘Askrī, al-Furūqū’l- Lūghawīyah, ed. Muhammad Ibrāhim (Egypt: Dār al-‘Ilam, 1417/1997), 220. Nūshwān al-Yamanī, Shamsū’l-‘Ulūm, ed. Ḥussain b. ‘Abdullāh (Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1419/1999), 9/6182. Ibn al-Athīr, an-Nihāya fī Gharībi’l-Ḥadīth, ed. Ṭāhir Aḥmad (Beirut: al-Maktabtu’l-‘Ilmiah, 1399/1979), 4/360. Muhammad b. Mūkarram b. Manzūr, “al-Jīm”, Lisānu’l-‘Arab (Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1414/1993), 11/631.
al-Baqarah 2/123,130,135. al-‘Imrān 3/ 95. an-Nis’ā 4/ 125. al-An ‘ām 6/161. Yusūf 12/37-38. al-Ḥaj 22/78.
Ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʿ al-Bayān ʿan taʾwīl āy al-Qurʾān, ed. ‘Abdullāh b. ‘Abdil Mūhsīn al-Tūrkī (Beirut: Dār Ḥijar, 1421/2001), 3/102. al- Māturīdī, Taʾwīlāt Ahl al-Sunna, ed. Fātma Yusūf (Beirut, Muasisatur- Risāla, 1425/2005), 6/374. al-Wāḥidī, al-Tafsīrū’l-Bāsīṭ (al-Saūdia: Jāmiatū’l-Imām Muhammad b. Saūd al-Islāmīa, 1430/2009), 13/228.
Abū Zaid ad-Dabūsī, Ṭaqwīmu’l-Adilla, ed. Khalil Mahī’u-Din (Beirut: Dār al-kūtub al-‘Ilmiah, 1421/2001), 79. al-Samānī, Qawāti’ul-Adilla fi’al- Uṣūl, ed. Muhammad Hassan (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al- Ilmiah, 1419/1999), 1/30. al-Qarāfi, Sharha Tanqih al-Fuṣūl, ed. Ṭāḥa ‘Abdul Rauf (Beirut: Shirkatul ṭab‘a, 1393/1973), 374. Ibn Mufliḥ al-Ḥanbalī, Uṣūlū’l-Fiqh, ed. Fahad b. Muhammad (al- Saūdī : Maktabtu’l- Abikān, 1419/1999), 322.
Ibn al- Aṭhīr, an-Nihāye fī Gharīb al-Ḥadīth, ed. Ṭāhir Aḥmad (Beirut: al- Maktaba al- ‘Ilmiah, 1399/1979), 2/409. Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqalānī, Fatḥ al- Bārī fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Beirut: Dār al-M‘arifah, 1379/1959), 13/245.
Wahbatū’z-Zūhaylī, Uṣūl al-Fiqh al-Islāmī (Sūriya: Dār al-Fikr, 1406/1986), 1/449.
- Narrated Abū Rāf‘i: “I saw the Messenger of Allah uttering the call to prayer (Adhān) in the ear of al-Hasan b. Ali when Fatimah gave birth to him”.
- “If a person has a baby and recites Adhān to his right ear and iqamah to his left ear, the disease of Ummu al- Ṣibyān will not harm him (Jinn will not harm him).”
See: Abū ‘Abdillāh Aḥmad b. Muhammad b. Ḥanbal Ash-Shaybānī Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, al-Musnad, ed. Shoaib al-Arna’ūt (Beirut: Muasisatu’r-Risāla, 1421/2001), 45/166-172 (No. 27186-194). Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān b. al-Ash’ath al-Sijistānī, Sūnan, ed. Muhammad Muhī’u-Din Abdul Ḥamid (Beirut: al-Maktabatul-Asāria, 1430/2009), “Abwāb al-Nawm”, 15 (No. 5105). Abū ‘Isā Muḥammad b. ‘Isā al- Tirmizī, Sūnan, ed. Muhammad Fuād Abdul Baqī (Egypt: Maktaba al- babī, 1394/1975), “Abwāb al-Adhāhī”, 17 (No. 1514). Abū Bakkar Aḥmad b. ‘Amar al-Bazzār, al-Musnad, ed. Mahfūz ur-Raḥmān (al- Saūdīa : Maktaba al-Ulūm, 1430/2009), 9/325 (No. 3879).
Ibn Abi Ḥāṭim, al- Jarḥa wa' T’adīl (India: Dairatu’l-Ma’ārif, 1371/1952), 6/348.
Uthmān b. Saeed Narrated: I asked Yaḥya about ‘Āsim b. ‘Ubaid Allāh, he said: Ḍaīf. Muhammad b. Amar al- Aqilī, az-Zuafā al-Kabīr, ed. Abdul Mūatī Amin (Beirut: Dār al-Maktabatū’l- ‘Ilmiah, 1404/1984), 3/333.
Muhammad b. Ismāil al- Bukhārī, at-Tārikhū’l-Kabīr (India: Dairatul Mārif, 1421/2001), 6/493.
al- Bukhārī, at-Tārikhū’l- Kabīr, 2/299.
Abū Yaʻlá Aḥmad b. ʻAlī al-Mawsilī, al-Musnad, ed. Ḥussain Salīm Asad (Sūyria: Dār al-Mamūn, 1404/1984), 12/150 (No. 6780).
Ibn Abi Ḥāṭim, al- Jarḥa wa Ta‘dīl, 8/274.
Ibn Ḥazm az-Ẓāhirī, al-Aḥkām fī Uṣūli al-Aḥhkām, ed. Aḥmad Shākir (Beirut: Dār al-Afāq, 1403/1983), 1/138.
Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqālanī, Nūzhatū'n-Naẓar (Sūriya: as-Sabāh, 1420/2000), 53.