A Critical Study of Evolutionary Theories of Western Scholars in the criticism of HadithEvolutionary Theories of
Evolutionary Theories of Western Scholars
The hadiths of the Prophet are second only to the Qur'an in the source of Islam. The Qur'an and Sunnah are considered by most scholars the two most basic sources of Islamic jurisprudence. When the Orientalists started their research on Islamic sciences, they also paid special attention to these two main branches. Since the Qur'an is the word of Allah Almighty, he has taken direct responsibility for its protection. In contrast to this whole miracle book, the Arabs who were so proud to have their language that they called themselves Arabs and those who spoke all other languages Ajam, ie dumb, could not stand it. When Western scholars started re- examining Islamic Sciences, they also raised objections to the Quran from different angles. But they could not achieve their goal because of its miraculous structure. So a group chose the field of hadiths of the Prophet. Most Western scholars seem to agree on the principles by which Muslim scholars working on the science of hadith have judged the authenticity and weakness of hadiths that these principles are not logical and scientific. Therefore, traditions based on them cannot be checked. Then they began to examine these traditions based on some self-made principles. The different positions they took in researching hadith are discussed in this research article on their gradual evolution.
William, Muir, “Life of Muḥammad” (London,858), xxix-xxxi
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Alfred Won,Kremer “Geschichte der herrchendenideen des Islams” (Leipzig,1668) P 142-43; Dozy Reinhart, “Het Islamisme”(1863), P81.
William, Muir, “Life of Muḥammad” (London,858), Pxxxv-vi
William Muir, “Life of Muḥammad” (London,858), (Ibid,Pxxxviii-ix)
Abū Bakr and ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) first and second Caliphs of Islam are called Sheikhs or Sheikhain.
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This argument, in his own words, consists of the following. The best way of proving that a tradition did not exist at a certain time is to show that it was not used as a legal argument in a discussion which would have made reference to it imperat¬ive, if it had existed.
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See Patrica Crone, Roman, Provincial and Islamic Law: The Origins of the Islamic patronate (Cambridge,1987),P32-34; M. A. Cook, Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World (Cambridge, 1977),P152.
G.H.A Juynboll, “Muslim Tradition: Studies in chronology, provenance and authership of early Ḥadīth (Cambridge,1983), 71
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Alfred Guillaume, “The Traditions of Islam”(Oxford,1924)80,89
G.H.A Juynboll, “The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature” (Leiden,1969), 2/230
Joseph Schacht, “The Origins of Muḥammadan Jurisprudence” (Oxford University Press,1953)P,156
G.H.A Juynboll, “Muslim Tradition” : Studies in chronology, provenance and authership of early Ḥadīth (Cambridge,1983)P72
Alfred Guillaume, “Islam” (Penguin,1954) P 99
Gregor Schoeler, “Oral Torah and Ḥadīth”(Der Islam 66), P245,246
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GregorSchoeler , “Oral Torah and Ḥadīth”(Der Islam 66) 20-42
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