Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Religious Dilemmas
Infertility is the diminishing or complete absence of an ability of a person to produce offspring. A significant clinical and religious issue influences people of reproductive ages, in every corner of the world. Looking for a solution for infertility isn't just reasonable, yet additionally encouraged in Islam as it is a human instinct for children. “O Lord! Grant us spouses and offsprings who will be the comfort of our eyes.” (25:74) Various methods to address infertility have entered the realm of science and technology. These ways include In-vitro Fertilization, Artificial Insemination, Cryopreservation, Surrogacy, and cloning. These techniques, on the other hand, are linked to several other legal, ethical, and religious issues. This article explores the legality of assisted reproductive technologies on the scale of Islamic teachings. The question has always weighed the maintenance of a family's legacy against overcoming infertility within a marriage. Certainly, sharia rulings should be applied through reasoning to resolve the issue of infertility.
Stedman’s medical dictionary. 27th ed. ( New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000),896
Fido Abdullahi, “Emotional distress in infertile women in Kuwait.” Int J Fertil Womens Med 49 no.1 (2004): 24–28.
Knox, David and Schacht Caroline, Choices in relationships an introduction to marriage and family (Canada: Thomson learning academic resource center, 2008), 234.
Dhont, Nathalie, Luchters Stanley, Muvunyi Claude Mambo and Vyankandondera Joseph, “The risk factor profile of women with secondary infertility an unmatched case-control study”, Journal of Biomedical Central 11, no. 32(2011).
Holy Quran 42:50
Abdullah Yousaf, The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary (Lahore. Kashmir Bazaar,1998),636
Sunan Ibn Majah, Chapters on Medicine, Hadith no 3439
Bakar Osman, The History and Philosophy of Islamic Science (The Islamic Text Society, 1999), 106-107
Nasr Hossein Seyyid – Islam and Modern Science – Lecture (delivered 14 January 2013)
Atighetchi Dariusch, Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2007), 181.
Osborn Concise Law Dictionary, 9th ed., “Bone, Sheila” (Ed.).
Partowmah Mozaffar, “Biotechnology Issues in the Opinion of Islamic Scholars,” Journal of Islamic med 25, no. 9 (1993), 10-11.
Modi Jaising Prabhudas, Medical Jurisprudence and toxicology (India: Lexis Nexis, 2002) ,627
Adam, M., Critical Examination of the right of Artificially Inseminated Child to Inherit Under Islamic Law (Nigeria: University of Ilorin,2011),71-72
Holy Quran 2:223
Khan, Muhammad Iqbal, Medical Ethics An Islamic Perspective (Islamabad: institute of policy studies, 2013), 146
Ahmad Norhayati, “Assisted reproduction-Islamic views on the science of procreation,” Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 13(2003), 59-60.
Albar, M. A, “Counselling about genetic disease: An Islamic perspective,” Eastern Mediter ranean Health Journal, 5, no.6 (1999), 1129-1133.
Husain Fatima A, “Reproductive issues from the Islamic perspective,” Human fertility, 3 No.2 (2000), 124-128.
Al-Hasani, S, “Islamic consideration (in Sunni School) regarding bioethics and ART (especially oocyte and embryo donation) and the law in Germany,” The proceedings of Gamete and Embryo Donation in Infertility Treatment, Tehran, 1-2 March 2006, Iran. Medical Journal of Reproductive and Infertility, (2006), 17.
Serour Gamal, Reproductive choice: A Muslim perspective. In John Harris & Soren Holm (Eds.), The future of human reproduction: Ethics, choice and regulation (New Yorj: Oxford University Press,1998), 191-202
Hussein, M. Social Acceptability Of Alternative Techniques For Reproduction (Islamabad: Islamic Foundation, 1997),68
Holy Quran 4:23
Fadel Hossem E, “Islamic Shari’ah Rulings on New Reproductive Choices,” Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America 37, no.2 (2005), 70–7.
Holy Quran 25:54
Maher M. Hathout, “Surrogacy: An Islamic Perspective,” Journal of Islamic Medicine. No. 21(1989), 105
Fadel Hossem E, “The Islamic viewpoint on new assisted reproductive technologies,” Fordham Urban Law Journal 30(2002), 147–57.
Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan, and Mohammed Ali Albar. “Assisted reproductive technology: Islamic Sunni perspective,” Human Fertility 18(2015), 107–12.
Holy Quran 58:2
Alaro AbdurRazzaq, Assisted reproductive technology (ART): The Islamic law perspective. In Islam and Bioethics. Edited by Berna Arda and Vardit Rispler-Chaim. (Turkey: Ankara University, 2012), 85–97.
Al-Mubarak T Tawfique, “Surrogacy and Islam: Between permissibility and promotion,” Islam & Civilizational Renewal 5, no.2 (2014), 277–81. https://icrjournal.org/index.php/icr/article/view/410
Holy Quran 4:23, Sahih Bukhari ,Book of Wedlock, Chapter: Not to marry more than four (at a time), Hadith No 5098
Chamsi-Pasha Hasan and Albar Mohammed Ali, Contemporary Bioethics: Islamic Perspective(New York: Springer Cham,2015), 178
Alaro, Assisted reproductive technology,91
Holy Quran 46:15
Holy Quran 53:32
Serour Gamal I, “Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives,” Gynecological Endocrinology 29, no.11 (2013):949–52.
Atighetchi , Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives, 146
Opoku John Kwaku and Mensah Peter Addai , “Comparative Analysis Of In-Vitro Fertilization From The Christian And Islamic Point Of View,” Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences 2, no.7( 2014): 47
Pollard Irina, Bioscience Ethics (New York: Cambridge university press,2009),158
Fadel Hossem E, “The Islamic viewpoint on new assisted reproductive technologies,” FordhamUrban Law J 30, no.1 (2002):147–157
Steptoe, P.C, and Edwards, R.G, “Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo,” The Lancet 312, no. 8085(1978), 366. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(78)92957-4
Rodini Mohammad Amin, “An investigation on Islamic perspective on the reproductive technologies,” Webmed Central International Journal of Medicine and Molecular Medicin 3, no.7 (2012). https://static.webmedcentral.com/article_view/3548
Fadel Hossem E, “Assisted Reproductive Technologies: An Islamic Perspective,” Journal of Islamic Medical association 25 , no.14, (1993):17
Afroz, A. The Conditional Permissibility Of In Vitro Fertilisation under Islamic Jurisprudence (Australia: Al Ghazali Centre Awareness, 2004), 8.
Ahmad Norhayati, “ Assisted reproduction – Islamic views on the science of procreation,” Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics , 13(2003),59
Serour Gamal I , “Islamic perspectives in human reproduction,” Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 17 (2008),34- 38
Serour Gamal I, “Religious perspectives of ethical issues in ART” Middle East Fertility Society Journal, 10(3) (2005), 185-190.
Al-Qaradawi Yousaf, The lawful and prohibited in Islam (Cairo: Al-Falah Foundation,2001),194
Alaro, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART),95
Al Qardawi Yousaf., The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, 196